The solubility of manganese in α iron is up to 5% and in the γ-iron is unlimited. Manganese is an element most commonly 
encountered in alloy steels, because it is easily available and it is not expensive. It is relatively easy to introduce into steel
in metallurgical processes. In many alloy steels, manganese can replace more expensive nickel.
All steels contain a certain amount of this element, as an addition to the melting process it is essential because it changes
the sulfur in manganese sulfide which is removed with the slag and the affinity with the oxygen makes the deoxidation of steel.
The alloying addition of manganese significantly improves the quality of steel, making it more concise, increases hardness,
tensile resistance, increases the limit of plasticity. Mn is an element which increases hardenability of steel, the most intensively.
In tool steels in the amounts of about 2% reduces their susceptibility to deformation in the process of hardening and in
low-carbon steels at 2% of content their plasticity increases. In mid carbon steels increasing the amount of this ingredient
up to 4-6% causes the deterioration of ductility and fragility. Steels with low manganese content (air cooled) have
ferritic – pearlitic structures, or pearlitic - but it depends on the carbon content in the alloy. Steels with mid content of
this element have martensitic structure, while those with a high content of Mn - austenitic structure.
The most popular are of manganese steel alloys containing up to 3% Mn, and austenitic steels with content of Mn up to 10-18%
Steel containing 12-14% manganese is very resistant to abrasion - Hadfield steel ( X120Mn12, X120Mn13, 1.3401, 110G12,11G12 etc.)

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